Frequently Asked Questions
Contrary to his father, `Abduâ€™l-BahÃ¡ did not associate with only one country. At first, he continued his fatherâ€™s path and used their friendship to build the first ever â€˜Bahaâ€™i house of worshipâ€™28. The extent of the affiliation is such that Abuâ€™l-fazl Golpayegani has quoted from `Abduâ€™l-BahÃ¡ that we should always keep in mind the protection and justice of the Russian Government and persistently request for the support and strengthening of The Great Emperor.29 Later he prayed for Ottomanâ€™s government too.
Once the Ottomanâ€™s government found out that `Abduâ€™l-BahÃ¡ is spying for the Britain, they decided to execute him. But since the Britainâ€™s government supported `Abduâ€™l-BahÃ¡, they saved him from death.30 Curiously after Britainâ€™s seizure of Palestine, he was given the Knighthood rank and was titled as Sir.31 As a sign of kindness, `Abduâ€™l-BahÃ¡ prayed for George V the King of the United Kingdom.32
In his last years, he traveled to Europe and America, and came aware of some western trending thoughts. Using them, he created the â€˜twelve BahÃ¡â€™i teachingsâ€™.
He died at 1921 and was buried at Haifa. Many representatives of Britain were present at his funeral.33
He did not have any sons. By writing the Will and Testament for BahÃ¡â€™i leaders, he created the Chain of Guardians.
Based on the Will and Testament, the guardians will come one after another, and each will chose their successor, and the guardian is the permanent head of the House of Justice. According to the Will and Testamentâ€™, Shoghi Effendi, the grandson of `Abduâ€™l-BahÃ¡, was chosen as the first guardian, and after him, from his sons, the primogeniture would be the next guardian.34
He is the son of Mirza Hadi Afnan and `Abduâ€™l-BahÃ¡â€™s daughter. He studied in American University of Beirut and University of Oxford. After `Abduâ€™l-BahÃ¡â€™s death, the leadership of the BahÃ¡â€™is was given to Shoghi Effendi. However some did not accept this decision and another denomination among BahÃ¡â€™is was created. Some prominent teachers of Bahaâ€™ism such as Abdul-Hussain Ayati, Fazollah Subhi (scriber of `Abduâ€™l-BahÃ¡), Mirza Hussain Nikoo and other BahÃ¡â€™is converted to Islam. Each writing a book about their conversion and Shoghi Effendiâ€™s history.
Shoghi Effendi applied the structure of the European parties he saw, and created the Local Spiritual Assembly and National Spiritual Assembly and had them registered as religious organizations or even as commercial organizations in different countries . It is because of these structured organizations that Bahaâ€™ism is still present.
Shoghi brought â€˜shunningâ€™ to the BahÃ¡â€™i faith, meaning that whoever objects the guardian in any fashion, will first be shunned from the organization and if needed, shunned from his family too. Contrary to this, `Abduâ€™l-BahÃ¡ has previously said:
Why should we say he is a Jewish or he is a Christian, and they are Buddhists, this (matter) doesnâ€™t have anything to do with us. God has created us all and burdened us to be polite to all. However issues related to beliefs (of people) is for God (to judge) and at the Judgement Day he will punish and recompense. God has not chosen us as their reckoner.35
The Israelis established themselves at `Abduâ€™l-BahÃ¡â€™s era, and as a result of his service to the Israelis, the BahÃ¡â€™i assets and affairs have been free from tax ever since.36
6- Who succeeded Shoghi Effendi?
Shoghi Effendi died in 1957 in London, and was buried there. Since he was sterile, he had no children and even left without a successor, thus creating many disputes in the aftermath; all contrary to the Will and Testament of `Abduâ€™l-BahÃ¡.
Firstly, all of the three wars were established by the followers of `Ali Muhammad BÃ¡b against the government forces of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar whenÂ Amir Kabir was chancellor.
The first war was in fort Tabarsi under the command of Mulla Muhammad Ali Quddus and Mulla Hussain Boshruâ€™i in 1265 AH; the second war was under the command of Vahid Darabi in Neyriz, Fars in 1266 AH; the third war was in Zanjan in 1266 and 1267 AH under the command of Hojjat Zanjani.
The shrine of Shaykh Tabarsi
Secondly, these wars had nothing to do with the BahÃ¡â€™is since MirzÃ¡ Husayn-Ali NÃºri (BahÃ¡â€™iâ€™s leader) claimed to be the manifestation of God in the year 1279 AH i.e. 13 years after BÃ¡bâ€™s death; and almost 8 years after that, by writing KitÃ¡b-i- Aqdas, claimed to be prophet.
BahÃ¡â€™iâ€™s abuse from BÃ¡bis deaths in the three wars is among BahÃ¡â€™iâ€™s baseless claims.
1- Kawakeb-al-Durriyeh, Vol.2, Page 95, Qarn-i-Badi, Vol.3, Page 125
2- Masabih-al-Hidayat, Vol.2, Page 282
3- Qarn-i-Badi, Vol3, Page Â 297
4- Qarn-i-Badi, Vol.3, Page Â 299
5- Makatib, Vol.3, Page 347
6- Qarn-i-Badi, Vol.3, Pages 321 and 323
7- Will and Testament, Egypt print, Pages11-16, Nazar-i-Ijmali, Pages 66-68
8- Khitabat, Vol.2, Page 248
9- Tawqiâ€™at-i-Mubarak, Vol.3, Page 165