Who is Qorratul Ein?
Tahereh or Qorratul Ein was one of the first women who unveiled. However who is she? How did her fate end in execution?
Undoubtedly, Zarrin Taj known as Qorratul Ein (1230-1268 A.H.) has been one of the wonderful women during the recent two hundred years in the Iranian history. However, who was Qorratul Ein and what has she done, indeed? Why has she considered as an influential woman in the contemporary history of Iran?
In this writing, it is tried for her life to be investigated and for her thoughts and behaviors to be identified. It is also tried for her life movement to be followed and the final judgment will be done by the dear readers.
It is said that her name is â€œZarrin Tajâ€; but her real name has been â€œFatimahâ€ and her nickname is Omesalameh. One of her titles has been Qorratul Ein and the other is Tahereh. Since she was so pretty she was called â€œSham-al-Zohaâ€ and â€œBadr-al-dujeâ€. She was born in Qazvin city in a scientific family in 1230 A.H. (Babâ€™s sedition, p, 165, Muhammad Reza Kahhaleh)
Her fatherâ€™s name was â€œMulla Saleh Baraqaniâ€ from Qazvin city and her paternal uncles were â€œMullah Muhammad Taqiâ€ and â€œMulla Muhammad Ali who were scholars and clergymen, especially Mulla Muhammad Taqi- know as the third martyr- who was assumed as one the greatest clergymen of Shiism. (for more study refer to Muhammad Ali Tabrizi, Vol.1, PP, 157-158.)
Zarrin Taj was really clever and advanced so much in learning the rudiments of the Islamic sciences especially she was born in as scientific family. Her father and uncles had established two schools in the house locality; one of the public and the other for their offspring and relatives. In the latest one there were a lot of discussions among uncles and their offspring. Zarrin Taj was participating on these meetings and discussions; so she was accustomed to discussion since childhood. She was skillful in discussions. She was so knowledgeable that she could answer ladiesâ€™ questions legitimately. (Babâ€™s sedition, PP. 166-167; also refer to Ahmad Kasrawi, Bahaâ€™ism, PP. 74-75.)
Regarding her face, she was really good looking and pretty.
Zarrin Taj got married with her cousin Mulla Muhammad â€“Mulla Taqiâ€™s son- who was the Friday Prayer leader of Qazvin city and had three offspring, two sons and a daughter. (Norr-al-Din Chardehi, who is Bab and what does he say?, Fathi publishing house, 1363, first edition, p. 83). Mulla Muhammad â€“Zarrin Tajâ€™s paternal uncles and father-in-law announced that Sheikh Ahmad Ehsaeeâ€™s belief regarding resurrection is against the holy Quran and blasphemous. Thus, he excommunicated Ehsaee and prevented people visiting him. (Babâ€™s sedition, p. 166)
At that time when Ehsaee had come to Qazvin city, he couldnâ€™t attract people to himself because of Mulla Muhammad Taqiâ€™s oppositions; but he could make Mulla Muhammad Ali â€“Mulla Muhammad Taqiâ€™s brother and Zarrin Tajsâ€™ other paternal uncle obey himself. (Babâ€™s sedition, PP. 166-168). It seems Zarrin Taj became interested in Sheikism influenced by her uncle Mulla Muhammad Ali. She wrote several letters for Seyyed Kazem Rashti-Ehsaeeâ€™s pupil. When Seyyed Rashti observed her letters and questions, he got surprised at her dominance on the religious problems and called her â€œQorratul Einâ€ and â€œQorratul Ein and Farehal Foaâ€™dâ€ â€“[A person who causes eyes and heart happy]. (Babâ€™s sedition, P. 168) It is obvious that their correspondence has occurred when Ehsaee had died (1241 A.H.)
Nevertheless this familiarity was the start of an adventure when Zarrin Taj quit her home. The contemporary historian Dr. Abdul Hussein Navaee has written in the second article of the book â€œBabâ€™s seditionâ€:
â€œFrom that time on, studying Sheikism works and searching their books had made Zarin Tajâ€™s attention be attracted and it changed her life gradually. He quit her marital life because her husband and she had differend ideas. They were arguing very much. Qorratul Ein quit her house having three offspring and went to her fatherâ€™s house. (Babâ€™s sedition, p. 168) It is interesting to be said that Fatimahâ€™s father prevented her obeying Sheikism; but she was constantly writing letters for Seyyed Kazem Rashti who was living in Karbala. Eventually, she decided to head off towards Karbala to visit him.
Quiting home and religion:
When Zarrin Taj arrived at Karbala, Seyyed Kazem Rashti had died (1259 A.H.). after his death, his pupils searched each part of Iran to find the promised person or so-called â€œthe truth sunâ€. anyway, Qorratul Ein stayed in Karbala to make up for Rashtiâ€™s absence. So, she was solving the religious problems.(Babâ€™s sedition, pp. 111, 168 & 169) of course, she was so fluent in reasoning that was being praised by the addressesÂ and pupils.
Then in 1260 A.H. when Seyyed Ali Muhammad Bab (1235-1265 A.H.) clamed for Babims (form more study refer to Seyyed Abdul Rezzaq Al-Hussani, Babism and Bahaâ€™ism in the past and the present time, Baqdad, freedom publishing house, 1404 A.H., fifth edition, pp. 21-23) some of Seyyed kazem Rashtiâ€™s pupils such as Mulla Hussein Boshrouyee turned to her.
It is continued ...